中考英语宾语从句全掌握

2019-09-22 23:05 来源: 高考学习网 本文影响了:113人

中考英语宾语从句分层练

由一个独立分句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫做复合句。初中阶段我们需要掌握的复合句是宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句。

在复合句中,由一个句子充当宾语,这个句子叫做宾语从句。引导宾语从句的常见关联词有:that(不译,可以省略)、ifwhether(译为:是否)、what、who、where、when、why、how等。

根据宾语从句的不同,宾语从句可分为以下几类:

当主句为一般过去时,

(1)若宾语从句为陈述句(肯定句和否定句)宾语从句用that引导(that可以省略)。宾语从句的动词时态变为相应的过去的时态,宾语从句的人称向主句看齐。例如:

I like the book.(He said...)→ He said (that) he liked the book.

解析:宾语从句为肯定句,用that引导(也可以省略);主句为一般过去时,宾语从句动词变为过去时liked;宾语从句的I和主句的He为同一个人,从句向主句看齐,改为he.

I don′t have a pen.(The girl said...)→

The girl said (that) she didn′t have a pen.

解析:宾语从句为否定句,用that引导(也可以省略);主句为一般过去时,宾语从句动词变为过去时didn′t;宾语从句的I和主句的The girl为同一个人,从句向主句看齐,改为she.

练习: We will visit Beijing.(The students said...)→

②The songs are beautiful.(He said...)→

③She has read the book.(I said...)→

答案:The students said (that)they would visit Beijing.

②He said (that)the songs were beautiful.

③I said (that) She had read the book.

(2) 若宾语从句为一般疑问句宾语从句用ifwhether(译为:是否)引导。宾语从句的动词时态变为相应的过去的时态,宾语从句用陈述句语序(主语+动词);宾语从句的人称向主句看齐;主句中的saidsaid to改为asked。

例如:Is he a doctor?(She said to me ...)→

She asked me ifwhether he is was a doctor.

解析:主句中的said to改为asked;宾语从句为一般疑问句,用ifwhether引导;宾语从句采用陈述句语序(主语he+动词is);主句said为一般过去时,从句改为一般过去时was.

Does your father go to work every day?(The teacher asked me...)→

The teacher asked me ifwhether my father goes went to work every day.

解析:宾语从句为一般疑问句,用ifwhether引导;宾语从句的your与与主句的me相关,宾语从句的your改为my;采用陈述句语序(主语my father+动词goes);主句asked为一般过去时,从句的goes改为一般过去时went.

练习: Will he finish the work? (I asked...)→

② Can you answer the question? (I said to the boy...)→

③ Does the girl play the piano?(I asked...)→

答案:I asked ifwhether he would finish the work .

②I asked the boy ifwhether he could answer the question.

③I asked ifwhether the girl played the piano.

(3)若宾语从句为特殊疑问句仍用原先的疑问词引导。宾语从句的动词时态变为相应的过去的时态,宾语从句用陈述句语序(主语+动词);宾语从句的人称向主句看齐;主句中的saidsaid to改为asked。例如:

What are you doing in the room?(I asked the boy...)→ I asked the boy what he was doing in the room.

解析:宾语从句为特殊疑问句,用宾语从句的what引导;宾语从句中的you和主句中的the boy为同一人,从句向主句看齐,变为he;宾语从句采用陈述句语序(主语he+动词is doing),主句asked为一般过去时,从句的is doing改为一般过去时was doing.

What does he like? (I said...)→I asked what he liked.

解析:宾语从句为特殊疑问句,用宾语从句的what引导;宾语从句采用陈述句语序(主语he+动词like),主句asked为一般过去时,从句的like改为一般过去时liked.

练习:Where is he going next? (I asked...)→

②When will you leave for Shanghai?(The teacher said to us...)→

③Why does he get up early? (I asked...)→

答案:I asked Where he were going next.

②The teacher asked us When we would leave for Shanghai.

③I asked why he got up early.

(4)若宾语从句为祈使句(以动词原形或"don′t +动词原形"开头的句子),须使用句型:"tell sb (not)to do sth"或"ask sb (not)to do sth"。例如:

Get up early.(My mother said to me...)→My mother toldasked me to get up early.

解析:主句said为一般过去时,需改为toldasked ;从句为肯定祈使句,需用tell ask sb to do sth句型。

Don′t play with dogs.(My grandparents told me...)→My grandparents told me not to play with dogs.

解析:从句为否定祈使句,需用tell sb not to do sth句型。

练习:Take care of your eyes.(The doctor said to us...)→

②Don′t talk in class.(My teachers told me...)→

答案:The doctor asked/told us to ake care of your eyes.

②My teachers told me not to talk in class.

注意:(1)如果主句的时态是一般现在时或Could you (please) do sth,宾语从句的时态保持不变。例如:

I am a good student.(He often tells me...)→

He often tells me (that) he is a good student.

解析:宾语从句为肯定句,用that引导(可省略);主句为一般现在时,宾语从句的时态不变。

Does he speak English?(Could you please tell me...)→

Could you please tell me ifwhether he speaks English?

解析:宾语从句为一般疑问句,用ifwhether引导;宾语从句采用陈述句语序(主语he+动词speaks);主句为Could you please tell me,宾语从句的时态不变。

(2)如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理或普遍真理,即使主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句的时态也保持不变。

例如: Is January the first month of the year?(Our teacher said...)→

Our teacher asked ifwhether January is the first month of the year

解析:宾语从句为一般疑问句,用ifwhether引导;宾语从句采用陈述句语序(主语January+动词is);宾语从句内容为客观事实,因此,宾语从句时态不变。

宾语从句速记口诀:

宾语从句须注意,几点事项应牢记。

一是关键引导词,不同句子词相异。

陈述句子用that;一般疑问是否(if,whether)替;

特殊问句更好办,引导还用疑问词。

二是时态常变化,主句不同从句异。

主句若为现在时,从句时态应看意;

主句若为过去时,从句时态变过去。

三是语序要记清,从句永保陈述序。